This week’s post is an extension on our previous post on bread consumption. The post concentrates on three analysis;
- Expenditure on bread per person by wealth quintile across LGAs.
- Expenditure on bread per person by gender of household head across LGAs.
- Expenditure on bread per person by age group.
Wealth quintile is used to measure how wealthy a household is by categorizing households into quintiles, ranging from the 1st quintile (poorest) to the 5th quintile (richest). The 1st quintile represents the poorest 20 percent of the sample, the 2nd quintile represents the poorer (the next 20 percent), the 3rd quintile represents the medium (the middle 20 percent), the 4th quintile represents the richer and the 5th quintile represents the richest household (the richest 20 percent).
Figure 1 explores further into household expenditure on bread by analyzing expenditure on bread per person by wealth quintile across LGAs. On our previous post on bread consumption; Kanifing, Banjul and Brikama had the highest expenditure on bread consumption. We learned from the figure that the expenditure on bread for a person in the richest quintile in Banjul, Kanifing and Brikama is D58, D50 and D39 respectively. This is the case because it is believed that the wealthier households are found in these regions. Bread is also more widely available in these regions as compared to other regions, making it possible for individuals to consume bread at least once in a day.
Figure 1 shows that the least expenditure on bread per person in the richest quintile is recorded in Janjangbureh, Basse, Kuntaur, Kerewan and by far in Mansakonko. These results are also in line with results found on our previous post on average expenditure on bread. Mansakonko recorded the lowest expenditure on bread per person at less than D10. This is explained by the large household sizes found in these settlements.
Households in these settlements are engaged in farming thus, cultivating other food crops to substitute with bread. In general, it can be clearly seen that expenditure on bread per person is highest in the richest quintile across all regions, thus showing the effect of wealth on bread consumption.
Figure 1: Expenditure on bread per person (last 7 days) by quintile and LGAs
In Figure 2 we used a bar graph with confidence intervals to analyze expenditure on bread per person by gender of household head across LGAs. We observe that, it is only in Banjul and Brikama that the gender of the household head plays a statistically significant role on bread expenditure per person and this is the case because the confidence intervals do not overlap. Therefore, we can say that in Banjul male headed households spent more on bread per person as compared to female headed households whilst in Brikama female headed households spent more on bread per person as compared to male headed households. Given the limit information we have, we are not sure why we observe these results. We would welcome any theories why this is the case. Given that the confidence intervals for the remaining LGAs do not overlap, we can say that there is no statistical difference in bread expenditure per person by gender of household head in these areas.
Figure 2: Expenditure on bread per person by Gender of HH head across LGAs.
We dive further into the dataset and looked into the effect of age group on expenditure on bread per person. We learnt from Figure 3 that, individual age 16-24 spent on average D34 on bread as compared to individuals in other age groups. It is seen that expenditure on bread per person is lowest in people aged 55 and above, their expenditure on bread is less than D20. Individuals age 45-54 also spent less than D20 on bread but their expenditure is slightly above individuals age 55 and above. The figure shows that, the expenditure on bread of a person reduces as one gets older. We found this to be very surprising, having expected the reverse; older people eating more bread (up to a certain age).
Figure 3: Expenditure on bread per person by age group.