This week’s post dives further into the Intergrated Household Survey (IHS) 2015/16 conducted by The Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBoS). This post is an addition on our previous post on crop production were groundnut was found to be among the top five cultivated crops and also one of the crops with the highest average income. In this post, we want to know the value of groundnut produced across LGAs excluding Banjul and Kanifing; due to the small population of growers in these two LGAs, the gender of groundnut growers and finally, the value of groundnut production by wealth quintiles.
Figure 1: Value of groundnut production across LGAs
Figure 1 shows that households that are into groundnut cultivation in Kerewan gain more compared to groundnut growers in other regions. This is evident as about 50% of households that are into groundnut production gained at least D15,000 which is greater than the average received by groundnut cultivators in other regions. In Kerewan, 25% of households that are into groundnut cultivation gained more than D20,000 which is the highest received across all regions. The variation in the value of groundnut in Brikama, Kuntaur, Janjangbureh and Basse is not as wide as in Kerewan. Figure 1 shows that, Mansakonko recorded the lowest value in groundnut production.
Figure 2: Value of Groundnut production by gender across LGAs
Figure 2 provides a more detailed breakdown of Figure 1, this time by the gender. In Brikama, Janjangbureh and Mansakonko, the cultivation of groundnut that was done jointly by men and women gained the highest value as compared to cultivation being done by either men or women alone. In these LGAs, joint cultivation by the sexes yields a higher output than either working alone. In Kerewan and Kuntaur this is not the case, with women cultivators making more from cultivation than men only or joint growers.
The figure shows that it is only in Basse that men in groundnut production received the highest compared to the other two groups of growers; women only growers and joint sexes growers. An advantage of breaking down Figure 1 is that we see that although Kerewan has the highest value, it is only in the Basse LGA that only men growers recorded the highest value; something that would have been lost if we did not have Figure 2. On average it is clearly seen that the combination of both men and women in cultivating groundnut yields greater return.
Figure 3: Value of groundnut production by wealth quintile in Kerewan and Basse
Given that in Figure 1 groundnut growers in Kerewan and Basse were amongst those who received the highest value, we try to analyze the value of groundnut in these two regions by wealth quintile. Figure 3 shows that in Kerewan the average household gained more from groundnut production as compared to households found in the other wealth quintiles whilst the richest households recorded the lowest value in groundnut production. In Basse the poorest households gained more from groundnut production as compared to households in other wealth quintiles. Data shows that in Kerewan the poor allocate more plots of lands as agricultural inputs for the production of groundnut, thus serving as a reason why the poor gained more from agricultural production. But this is not the case in Basse, as data shows that the rich households in Basse allocate more plots of lands to groundnut production.
Table 1: The value of groundnut for households that took a loan for agricultural purposes.
|LGA||Value of Groundnut||Loan for Agric Use (%)|
Further analysis was done to see the effect of loan received on the value of groundnut produced. The hypothesis is that, the value of groundnut produced increases if the household received loan and used it for agricultural purposes. We learn from the table that, in Kerewan households that received loan used it for agricultural purposes thus, giving a good explanation why households in Kerewan received the highest value in groundnut production in Figure 1. The second highest amount from groundnut production is in Basse and yet less than 3% reported taking loan for agricultural purposes. What could be the driving force behind Basse’s high value for farmers as compared to other regions?